The classification of diseases and disorders of muscular system can be made as infectious, hormonal, genetic, autoimmune, cancerous and poisonous. Physical injuries that affect the muscles are however, amongst the common causes of disorders of muscular skeletal system. Treatment for the disorders of muscular system in most cases is either symptomatic or as a supportive therapy to the preceding illness.
The system of the body which facilitates its movement is termed as muscular system. Muscles form 40% weight of our body. Apart from carrying out body movements, the muscular system is also responsible for heat generation and in maintaining the stability of the body. In the vertebrates, functioning of muscles is controlled by the nervous system. Different types of muscles which together form the human muscular system are cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles.
Disorders of the Muscular System
The disorders and problems related to the muscular system are explained in the following paragraphs.
Orofacial Myology Disorders: The orofacial myological disorders are a set of disorders that affect the muscles surrounding the face, jaw, lips and mouth. There are many different types of orofacial myological disorders like blocked nasal airways, dental malocclusions, speech problems, atypical swallowing and chewing patterns, abnormal posture of the orofacial musculature while resting, etc. The different causes of orofacial myological disorders could be as follows: imbalance in dental growth, obstructions or constrictions in the upper airway, low body tone, low-lying tongue resting posture, inadequate cranial and facial bone development, inadequate neck and head muscle development, etc. The treatment measures used for orofacial myological disorders include restoration of correct/proper swallowing patterns, re-education of muscle movement and establishment of adequate labial-lingual postures.
Atony: In this disorder, muscles lose their elasticity. Loss of elasticity and thereby, strength of muscles is the reason why atony is considered dangerous. This disorder of muscles is exhibited through different conditions (or probably symptoms) such atonic seizures, uterine atony and gastrointestinal atony. The atonic seizures are characterized by alterations caused in the brain for a temporary period which in turn is caused by lapse in the muscle tone. In gastrointestinal atony, muscles lose their propulsive ability. This condition is also described as decrease in motor activity of the gastrointesinal tract. In uterine atony, muscles of the uterus lose their tone. Contraction of uterine muscles is responsible for compression of blood vessels and thereby, the coagulation of blood. Loss of muscle tone hampers the process of blood coagulation and causes acute hemorrhage.
Myopathy: It is one of the many disorders of muscular system; it is characterized by muscle weakness which results from improper functioning of muscle fibers. The different muscle disorders like stiffness, muscle cramps and spasms could also be associated with myopathy. There are many types of myopathies and hence, the treatment for each of them is different. Treatment measures used for myopathy could be the ones which target a specific cause or those dealing with symptoms only. Physical therapy, drug therapy, acupuncture, surgery and bracing for support are amongst the treatment measures used for myopathy.
Pelvic Floor Muscle Disorder: In the pelvic floor muscle disorder, muscles that form the pelvic floor remain in a contracted/tightened position. Causes of the pelvic floor muscle disorder are not exactly known however, possible reasons behind tightening of muscles could be stress, trauma, etc. One might also suffer from problems such as frequent urination or pain in the pelvic region. Treatment measures used for pelvic floor muscle disorder include physical therapy, muscle relaxation, biofeedback and use of medications like Tamsulosin.
Diastasis Recti: It is a disorder where the rectus abdominis muscle, which is normally joined by the linea alba gets separated into left and right halves. This disorder mainly affects pregnant women and newborn babies. Complications such as development of ventral hernia or umbilical cord are treated by means of surgeries. In case of adults, it becomes important to perform surgeries in extreme cases; physiotherapy is used for disorders of a lesser degree/intensity.
Laminopathy: It is a genetic disorder in which mutations tend to occur in those genes which encode the proteins present in nuclear lamina. Along with muscular dystrophy, many other symptoms like dysplasia, diabetes and lipodystrophy are exhibited by people suffering from laminopathy. The treatment measures used for laminopathy are supportive and symptomatic. Those who suffer from muscular dystrophy are treated with the help of physical therapy.
Central Core Disease: It is a congenital myopathy, first described in 1956 by Shy and Magee. Symptoms of this disease are decreased muscle tone, weakness of facial muscles, hip dislocation, scoliosis, etc. There is no specific treatment for this disorder however, use of triggering anesthetics and muscle relaxants is avoided. Relatives of patients could be screened for the purpose of detecting mutations of RYR1 type.
Zenker's Degeneration: Various infectious diseases like typhoid fever, toxemia, etc. cause the degeneration of skeletal muscles; this condition is referred to as Zenker's degeneration. In this disorder, muscles become friable and pale, lose their cross striations, might rupture or exhibit a hyaline appearance.
Arthrogryposis: The arthrogryposis disorder, also known as Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita is characterized by joint contractures, fibrosis and muscle weakness.
Disorders of the muscular system are numerous and many underlying causes are behind them. The examples mentioned in the article are just a snapshot of various disorders of muscular system. Further research should help you understand more about these disorders.