The diplococci bacteria are round-shaped microbes, and occur in the form of cell pairs. Gram-negative is a term used in association with these bacteria, which means that a crystal violet dye is not retained (in the protocol of Gram staining) by these organisms. Those bacteria, which retain this dye are known as gram positive.
It is non-motile in nature, and it causes different types of bacterial infections of the respiratory system, central nervous system, middle ear, and joints of the body. This bacteria is placed in the family Moraxellaceae, in the order Pseudomonadales. Since it was earlier placed in the genus Branhamella, it is also referred to as Branhamella catarrhalis.
Speaking specifically about the diseases, bronchitis, sinusitis otitis media, and laryngitis are few conditions caused by these microbes. This microorganism is also associated with the disease of broncho-pneumonia. Heavy smokers and elderly patients should especially be aware of such problems caused by Moraxella catarrhalis. The beta-lactamases produced by this organism makes it resistant to penicillin. This bacteria is also resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Its treatment is carried out by means of fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin clavunate, and erythromycin.
It is amongst the most important gram negative diplococci, and is responsible for causing meningitis. Mortality rates resulting from its infection are high in Africa and Asia. Younger children (below 5 years of age) are at a greater risk of infection caused by this bacteria. These microbes attack only human beings, as they can obtain iron from humans (from the sources of lactoferrin and transferrin).
The outer membrane of this microbe contains lipooligosaccharide (in chemical form, it acts as an endotoxin. This compound is responsible for septic shock and fever. In some cases, lipoologosaccharide also causes destruction of red blood cells and results into hemorrhage. This organism is also responsible for causing septicemia, wherein inflammation of the entire body takes place. Its presence in the urine, and the response by immune system against them, results into an inflammatory state of the body. The antibiotics such as ceotaxime, ceftriaxone, and penicillin G are used in the treatment of this microorganism. Sputum of the affected person can be tested in the laboratory, to confirm the presence of this bacterium.
This microbe was first described by Albert Neisser in the year 1879. Gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection is caused by this bacterium, which moves by means of a twitching motion, with the help of locomotory organs called pili. In laboratories, the bacterium can grow on chocolate agar. In the case of gonorrhoeae, a pus-like discharge from the genitals with a foul smell can be observed.
Other symptoms include inflammation, swelling, redness, and burning sensation at the time of urination. It is not just the sexually transmitted infections caused by this microbe that are problematic, but also the other health problems caused by it are troublesome. The symptoms resulting from its infection include pharyngitis, conjuctivitis, urethritis, orchitis, and prostatitis. It is found that the Neisseria gonorrhoeae is resistant to antibiotics from the penicillin group. The medications like ceftriaxone can be used.