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What Are the Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?

Muneeza Jamal Jan 9, 2020
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an airway disease characterized by a reduction in airflow. Five per cent of the global population suffers from this medical condition. This condition also has a high death rate.

High Death Rate

This condition also has a high death rate. In the United States, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) ranked fourth in causing death. 120,000 deaths are reported each year in America. The number of new cases annually is also high.

Draining Resources

This disease is draining the resources of many countries as the cost to manage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients is costly. COPD treatment by DoctoronCall can help you with any medical conditions you are suffering from including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

Causes of COPD

Smoking, passive smoking, biomass fuel use, and exposure to certain harmful gases are the main causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Detecting this disease early is very important so that accurate treatment can be given.


The right treatment can help in symptoms reduction, prolonged survival, reduce the severity, and improve overall well-being. There are three subtypes for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):
  • Emphysema
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Chronic obstructive asthma


Emphysema is when respiratory disease characterized by structural changes in the lungs. On the other hand, chronic bronchitis is defined as a chronic productive cough for three months in each of two successive years in which other causes have been excluded by doctors.

Smoking - The Leading Cause

The more and the longer you smoke, higher are chances for you to develop this disease. However, when you stop smoking, the risk for you to develop this disease reduces every year. Other than that, passive smokers and biomass fuel users are also at risk to develop this disease. 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Although you already quit smoking you are still passive smokers or biomass fuel users, you are still at a high risk to develop Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

Clinical Features of COPD

  • Shortness of breath
  • Limitation in daily activities
  • Long-standing cough
  • Increase in sputum production
  • Wheezing
  • Fatigue
  • Chest tightness
  • Signs of lung hyperinflation
  • Decreased breath sounds
  • Nicotine and tar stain on fingers
  • Finger clubbing


Doctors proceed with investigations if clinically you are suspected to have COPD. The investigations are:
  • Lung Spirometry
  • Blood Investigations
  • Other Pulmonary function tests
  • Chest x-ray
  • CT Scan of the Chest

Home Treatment

Home treatments for COPD are:
  • Short-acting Beta-2 agonists inhalers
  • Short-acting anticholinergic inhalers
  • Oral corticosteroids
  • Stop smoking
  • Supplementary oxygen therapy
  • Nutritional support
  • Antibiotic for certain patients

Prevention of COPD

The prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation are:
  • Smoking cessation
  • Lung rehabilitation
  • Prophylaxis antibiotic
  • Vitamin D supplements

Factors to Poor Prognosis

These factors contribute to poor prognosis:
  • Active smoker
  • HIV infection
  • Low Body Mass Index(BMI)
  • High bacterial load within the airway
  • Reduced exercise capacity
  • Male
  • Presence of emphysema
COPD treatment by DoctoronCall can help you with any medical conditions you are suffering from including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).