Several aminoglycosides are effective against infections caused by aerobic, gram-negative bacteria. The following HealthHearty write-up provides information on side effects associated with the use of this drug.
Aminoglycosides are amino sugars joined to a hexose nucleus in glycosidic linkage. These have a strong organic base, and have varied pharmacological uses. They bind to the 30S ribosome and act as protein synthesis inhibitors, and slow down the cell proliferation process. They are mostly administered intravenously, as they do not get absorbed properly if taken orally.
Streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, apramycin, etc., are some of the types. They are typically used with other drugs for plague and tularemia diseases (highly infectious diseases of rodents that can be passed on to humans by ticks or flies). These could cause certain adverse effects, which is why, they should be taken under medical supervision.
Though this drug is effective against certain types of bacteria, these are contraindicated in certain circumstances:
- These are contraindicated for people who are allergic to them. Keep your doctors updated, and let them know if you have had an allergic reaction to these drugs.
- Caution must be exercised in case of people with pre-existing kidney disease. Nephrotoxicity is one of the concerns due to the accumulation of the drug in the proximal tubular cells of the kidney. Though toxicity is reversible in most cases, constant monitoring is required. If problems show up, the drug must be stopped or the dosage needs to be adjusted. One of the indications of kidney problems is a change in urine output.
- This drug is placed in pregnancy category D, and there’s evidence that suggests that it can cause damage to the unborn child.
- Children and old adults are more susceptible to the side effects. If taken in large doses for long periods, there’s a risk of ototoxicity, which might lead to hearing loss. Vestibulotoxicity, which leads to loss of balance, might occur in some people who have been taking the drug for a long period.
- They are used with β-lactam broad spectrum antibiotics for gram-negative bacillus infections. They might be used alone or in combination with other medications to treat bacterial infections.
- They are derived from the bacteria of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genus, and have a broad antimicrobial spectrum.
- They cause misreading of the mRNA sequence and inhibit protein synthesis. This makes them effective in combating most gram-negative bacteria like E. coli, Salmonella, and Pseudomanas. The effectiveness of aminoglycosides against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is well-known.
- Some experiments have shown their effectiveness in the treatment of cystic fibrosis.
- Though it is mostly administered intravenously, the inhalation or irrigation method might be used sometimes.
Being an antibiotic, this drug will not work against viral infections such as common cold and flu. The side effects might occur if these are taken in large doses. Doctors decide the dosage after taking into consideration the age, weight, and medical history of the patient.
Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is solely for educating the reader. It is not intended to be a substitute for the advice of a medical expert.