Usually, deep yellow is the color of concentrated urine, while dilute urine is normally colorless. Any other color of the urine is considered as abnormal. Distinct change in the color of urine is the prominent symptom of blood and protein in urine. Drugs or some food particles can impart various colors to the urine, like brown, green, black, orange or red. Brown urine may indicate the presence of broken down hemoglobin, which is a protein that promotes transfer of oxygen through red blood cells.
Urine can appear red or brown due to the presence of red blood cells in urine. The color may change, depending upon how long and how much amount of blood it contains. Brown urine can also be due to the presence of the muscle protein known as myoglobin. The condition wherein blood in the urine is noticed, is called hematuria. Chemical tests or microscopes help detect even a very small amount of blood in the urine.
- Red or Brown colored urine
- Abdominal pain
- Abdominal discomfort
- Urge to urinate frequently
- Pain while urination
- Burning sensation with urination
- Back pain
- Severe side flank pain
- Glomerular Dysfunction: When blood is present in the urine and the person is not complaining about any pain, then it is possible that certain blood vessels of kidneys (glomeruli) are not functioning properly. The condition is called painless hematuria. It should be kept in mind that glomerulonephritis can lead to decrease in urine production and edema too. It needs prompt medical attention.
- Blood Clot: It is possible to have blood and protein in urine without any infection. A kidney stone or even a blood clot when passes through ureters or the urethra, can result in blood in the urine. If not promptly treated, a kidney stone may lead to worsening of the situation. Infection, inflammation, or an injury to any part of the urinary system can lead to passing of blood in urine.
- Hemolytic Anemia: Hemolytic anemia which is a type of serious disorder, wherein red blood cells are damaged or destroyed fast, can lead to excretion of broken down hemoglobin through urine.
- Urinary Tract Infections: Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to blood in urine. UTI can be the cause of blood in urine during pregnancy. Women are more susceptible to UTI than men.
- Medications: Some drugs and medications like rifampicin are responsible for the blood in urine. Since old adults take more medications, they are more likely to suffer from hematuria.
- Betanin: After eating beets, betanin present in beets can produce red color of the urine. Consumption of certain berries and rhubarb may change the color of the urine.
- Kidney Dysfunction: Kidney stones, tumors, kidney diseases, any kind of injuries, kidney infections, renal failure, kidney cancer can lead to protein and blood in urine.
- Bladder Problems: Chronic bladder infection, bladder tumors, any problems related to urethra or ureters result in blood in urine.
- Sickle Cell Anemia: Sickle cell anemia, wherein, the red blood corpuscles become 'C' shaped, is also a cause of blood in urine.
- Hemoglobin: Bleeding in the kidney, bladder or ureter can lead to leakage of broken down hemoglobin into the urine.
- Myoglobin: The protein myoglobin can be excreted through urine after any kind of severe muscle injury.
- Prostate Gland: Enlarged prostate or prostate infection can lead to blood in urine.
- Strenuous Exercises: Excessive exercising (for example, excessive running) can lead to blood in urine.
- Inflammation of Colon: Inflammation of adjacent organs like colon can lead to small amount of blood in urine.
- Other Causes: Other diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, blood-clotting disorders, etc., and food colorings can lead to protein and blood in urine.
Treatment to prevent loss of blood and protein through urine depends upon the underlying cause of the condition. Diagnosis depends upon the results of various tests. More than one cause can be found during the tests. The treatment might vary from person to person, depending upon the overall health of the person, cause of the disorder and severity of the symptoms. In case of mild symptoms, hematuria may get cured on its own. For chronic conditions, it may or may not show severe symptoms.