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Hyperglycemia - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Hyperglycemia - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Hyperglycemia is a medical term for high blood sugar. The following article deals with the causes, symptoms, treatment options and complications associated with this condition.
Buzzle Staff
Last Updated: Apr 23, 2018
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A non-diabetic person can also suffer from hyperglycemia, due to a desk-bound activity routine, stressful lifestyle, eating disorders and some specific medications. However, rise in the sugar levels of these people is temporary and can be brought back to normal with just a few alterations in the daily routine.
One of the problems that go along with diabetes is hyperglycemia. This is a serious problem if left untreated and is a major cause of diabetes complications. Hyperglycemia occurs when the body has too little, or not enough insulin or is not able to use the insulin properly. If the blood sugar level is higher than 200 mg/dL then it may indicate hyperglycemia.
Causes
  • Eating more food than is mentioned in your planned diet
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Taking less of the oral agent or insulin than required
  • Emotional stress (workplace challenges or family conflicts)
  • Exercising less than required/planned
  • Certain medications
  • Physical stress (cold, flu or infection)
  • Surgery
  • Injury
Signs and Symptoms
  • Frequency in urination
  • Thirst
  • Dry mouth
  • Urination at night
  • Drowsiness or fatigue
  • Loss of weight
  • Increase in appetite
  • Slow healing of wounds
  • Blurriness in vision
  • Dry and itchy skin
There are times when the blood sugar levels become very high or has been high for a long time, in such cases, there are a few additional symptoms, they are:
  • Rapid loss in weight
  • Unconsciousness
  • Increased confusion or drowsiness
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Dizziness when you stand up
  • Coma
  • Abdominal pain
Self-care Measures
If you experience any of these symptoms and signs, first check your blood sugar. If the result comes out normal, then use a home testing kit to check for ketones and glucose. If the urine test comes out positive, your body may have begun making the changes that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. At this time it is advisable to visit the doctor so that he/she can help lower your blood sugar safely.

The steps to be followed are:
  • Eat less and avoid sugary beverages. Contact your dietician or doctor if you are facing trouble sticking to your meal plan.
  • Take your medicines as directed by the physician. When you consult your physician he/she may adjust the timing or dosage of your medication.
  • Exercise, as this is an effective way to reduce blood sugar, but there are reservations because the presence of ketones in the urine can drive your blood sugar even higher.
Treatment Options
Herbal Medicines
  • Take one liter water and 3 tbsp. cinnamon. Boil the mixture for about 15 to 20 minutes and then drain it. Drink this mixture regularly to gain maximum benefits.
  • Measure equal amounts of gooseberry powder and turmeric powder. Mix them well and add honey to attain a paste consistency. Consume 1 tsp. of this mixture every morning with an empty stomach.
Along with these natural home remedies, if you supplement your diet with the following, it will be all the more helpful to regulate your body glucose levels.
  • Huckleberry
  • Cinnamon
  • Banaba (a flowering plant)
  • Bitter melon
  • Broccoli
  • Grape juice
  • Whole wheat English muffin
  • Mashed potatoes
  • Foods containing zinc and biotin
Emergency Treatment

The need of emergency treatment arises when a person shows symptoms of
diabetic ketoacidosis and diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. The patient is hospitalized and given the following treatment to bring the sugar level back to normal:

Firstly, fluid replacement is carried out, wherein the patient is given fluids either orally or through an injection in a vein. This rehydrates the patient as well as dilutes the excessive sugar level in his blood.

Secondly, electrolyte replacement is done, where the patient receives electrolytes, through the veins, that are lost or lowered due to lack of insulin in the body. These electrolytes present in the blood are the carriers of an electric charge, which make your heart, nerve cells and muscles function normally.

Lastly, the patient is given insulin therapy to reverse the process of ketones buildup happening in the blood. Alike the above two treatment processes, insulin is also provided through veins.
Complications
  • Eye trouble: Small blood vessels that are located in your eyes can become damaged because of diabetes. Problems like this lie unnoticed for some time, it is thus a good idea to have an eye test performed each year.
  • Kidney problems: Kidney problems also occur as a result of diabetes.
Diabetes or high blood sugar that affect the kidneys create problems that include:
  • An accumulation of waste products in your blood
  • Kidney failure
  • Expulsion of protein and amino acids
  • Waste products are retained in the body instead of being transported out by urinating
  • Leg or foot amputation
Maintain a balance between your medication, diet and physical activity, which will help you to keep your sugar levels in the target range. Take Care!
Disclaimer: This HealthHearty article is for informative purposes only and does not, in any way, intend to replace the advice of a medical expert.