Blood consists of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, plasma, enzymes, etc. All these components are assigned with different works. Red blood cells supply oxygen to different parts of the body, white blood cell helps to fight against various diseases and platelets help in blood clotting. Problems with any of the components may lead to various blood disorders. Where anemia and hemophilia are some of the common disorders there are some rare blood disorders which you might not have even heard of.
Rare Blood Disorder
Getting diagnosed with a rare blood disorder may be very scary and dangerous. Hence it is very necessary to know about the rare blood diseases. Following are some of the blood disorders which are rare and can be very dangerous if not taken care of in time.
This is a rare disorder which is related to the reduction in the red blood cells with certain joint and skeletal deformities. This disorder is observed in infants and the reason behind this disorder is still not known. Small knuckles, pale skin, inability to extend the joints, triple-jointed thumbs, fatigue, decreased oxygen levels, deformed ears and droopy eyelids are some of the symptoms of Aase syndrome.
Factor XIII Deficiency
This blood disorder is passed from generation to generation. The body is unable to clot the blood which may result in excessive bleeding. It may also result in internal bleeding which can be very dangerous. It is usually mistaken as hemophilia as the disorder is nearly similar. Low platelet counts, high fever, kidney failure, recurring headaches, strokes, dark-colored urine, vomiting, etc are some of the symptoms of this disorder.
Hereditary Spherocytic Hemolytic Anemia
This is a rare disorder in which the red blood cells die prematurely. The red blood cells have very less amount of lipids and become spherical in shape. This spherical shape makes it difficult for them to come out of the spleen which causes their early destruction. This spherical shape can be easily observed under the microscope. It is caused due to an inherited metabolic defect.
This disorder is characterized by a low-level of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. It can be of many types like alpha-thalassemia, beta-thalassemia, Cooley's anemia and Mediterranean anemia. It is caused due to the mutation of the DNA and is inherited. If the person gets two copies of the gene then thalassemia can be very dangerous. Fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale appearance, irritability, yellow discoloration of skin (jaundice), dark yellow color urine, etc. are some of the symptoms of this disorder.
Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia or WM or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is a slow growing cancer which starts from the immune system. White blood cells start making an abnormal protein in the bone marrow which thickens the blood and causes many complications. Weight loss, bruising, headache, dizziness, gum bleeding, nosebleeds, tingling in hands and feet, etc. are some of the most common symptoms of this disease.
List of Rare Blood Disorders
Apart from the disorders mentioned above, there is a huge list of rare blood disorders that are quite dangerous. Some of them are enlisted below.
- Blackfan Diamond Anemia
- Fanconi's Anemia
- Hemolytic - Warm Antibody Anemia
- Hereditary Nonspherocytic Hemolytic Anemia
- Megaloblastic Anemia
- Hereditary Angioedema
- Antithrombin III Deficiency
- Cor Triatriatum
- Dilatation of the Pulmonary Artery
- Idiopathic Edema
- Endocardial Fibroelastosis (EFE)
- Congenital Heart Block
- Hemangioma Thrombocytopenia Syndrome
- Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
- Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
- Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
- Hereditary Lymphedema
- Maffucci Syndrome
- Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia
- Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency
If you observe any of the symptoms of these disorders then consult your doctor as soon as possible. In case of the hereditary blood disorders speak to your doctor before conceiving so as to avoid a birth defect in the child. Get blood disorders treated in the initial stage itself as they can be fatal if not taken care of in time.