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Renal Cyst

Renal Cyst

A renal cyst is a fluid filled sac which develops in the kidneys. Through this article, let us discuss its classification, along with the symptoms and methods of treatment...
Marlene Alphonse
Last Updated: Mar 12, 2018
The kidneys are the excretory organs of the human body, and these bean shaped organs are an important part of the urinary system, whose main function is to expel the waste and toxins from the body. As a result of over accumulation of waste products in the kidneys, cysts tend to be formed. Cysts formed in the kidneys are known as renal cysts.

Cysts are small, fluid filled sacs that form anywhere in the body. A renal cyst, which is also known as kidney cyst, is formed as a result of calcification in the kidneys and can be located in either or both the kidneys. Renal or kidney cysts can be of two kinds - simple and complex. A simple cyst is benign (or non-cancerous) in nature. They are asymptomatic, that may not require treatment and are formed mostly due to increasing age. A complex cyst, on the other hand, is cancerous (or malignant) and requires immediate treatment. As compared to others, persons above 50 years of age are at a higher risk of developing this health disorder. Complex cysts, which can also be a congenital defect, are richly supplied with blood. Timely medical intervention is essential, or this cyst may result in kidney cancer. There is also another kind of cyst, which is the exophytic renal cyst. This cyst develops on the epithelium or external side of the kidney. Let us now take a look at the symptoms and treatment methods of cysts in the urinary system.

Renal Cyst Symptoms

A cyst in the kidneys can be either small or large, depending on the amount of fluid encompassed in the sac. Kidney cysts also often go undetected unless diagnosed while undergoing a sonography or a CT scan. Given below are some of the symptoms, which may reveal the presence of this renal problem.
  • One of the primary symptoms that can be observed is a feeling of fullness or a bloating sensation. Some individuals may experience this sensation even on an empty stomach. As the cysts enlarge, this feeling may also increase.
  • A dull ache in the lower abdomen and back can also be felt. This pain may become severe, if the cyst grows larger or shifts position. This can also be observed during the formation of kidney stones. Some individuals may also experience a distended abdomen.
  • Frequent urination is also one of the symptoms of cyst in the kidneys. Some individuals may also pass blood in urine as a result of kidney infection. This condition, where the individual passes traces of blood in the urine, is known as hematuria.
  • Low-grade fever, generalized body weakness and a feeling of nausea are also some of the other symptoms of this kidney disorder.
Treating Cysts in the Kidneys

A cyst usually does not cause any harm, unless it increases in size and causes a lot of pain or is of the cancerous kind. In such cases, it is important to undergo treatment for cysts in the kidneys to prevent any further complications, which may be life-threatening. The patient may have to undergo a few diagnostic tests in order to determine the severity of the condition. Pain killers may be prescribed to provide relief from kidney pain. The patient may have to undergo percutaneous sclerotherapy, where the doctor punctures the cyst and injects alcohol into it to completely destroy the harmful cells. This destroyed cyst is surgically removed to prevent further complications. In case of a simple cyst, major treatment may not be required, but for complex renal cysts, treatment, and even removal of the diseased part is essential, in case it leads to kidney failure, which can prove fatal in some cases.

Polycystic kidney disease can also be one of the causative factors for the formation of cysts in the either or both the kidneys. To avoid this kidney disorder, it is advisable to drink plenty of fluids, follow a proper diet plan and go for a routine checkup to a health care provider. Take care!