Renal cysts can be simple or complex, depending on the severity of their growth. The treatment for this condition is imperative though, irrespective of the kind of cyst it is. Let us look through the treatment options that are available for the same.
Renal cysts, also known as kidney cysts, are small sacs or pockets of thin tissue that may either be filled with air, semisolid substances or fluids. These cysts are a type of kidney disease that can develop within the kidneys as one or several cysts. Renal cysts can be classified into two categories simple kidney cysts and complex kidney cysts.
Simple Kidney Cysts: These kind of cysts consist of skin pockets that are filled with clear or yellowish fluid, these may sometimes have traces of blood in them (as in the case of hyperdense cysts). These type of cysts are a natural phenomenon and many people will develop these as their age progresses. These, though harmless, might prove to be painful when the cysts grow in size and press against the surrounding organs of the kidney. These kinds of cysts are potentially harmless and do not lead to cancer.
Complex Kidney Cysts: Complex kidney cysts come about when instead of the clear liquid inside the sacs, there are other forms of irregularities that develop. These could include anything from thin to thick walls,calcium build-up in varied quantities or a tissue growth that has a regular supply of blood (known as enhancement). The emergence of all these factors leads to a high risk that the cyst can turn cancerous. It is owing to this fact that a regular check up needs to be done and the nature of the cyst monitored.
The symptoms of renal cysts do not really make way in case of simple kidney cysts. If they do, they are quite mild and include pain as its main symptom. If any of the following symptoms make way, then there is a high risk that they could be due to a complex kidney cyst.
- Pain that could include back pain, abdominal pain and/or kidney pain, along with pain on the sides, between the ribs and the hips.
- Feeling full all the time.
- There are chances that are person might have the need to urinate frequently. He could also experience trouble while urinating and pass blood or very dark urine.
- If the cyst is large then it might form a lump in the abdomen or back.
- A person could develop a red tongue with a yellow coating on it.
- There are chances that the patient could develop a Urinary Tract Infection.
- The emergence of fever, chills and a rapid pulse, among other similar symptoms of an infection is also quite possible.
- There are possibilities of developing renal tuberculosis as well.
Though the exact reasons for which the emergence of renal cysts cannot be determined, it could include some of these.
- Many people have renal cysts at birth which is caused due to genetics.
- An obstruction in the kidney can lead to the formation of one or several renal cysts.
- Many patients might even develop Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) which is again a genetic disorder that results in the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys and leads to kidney damage along with the damage of surrounding organs.
- Sometimes the growth of tapeworms in the intestines can also lead to renal cysts or cysts in other organs and is usually taken as a sign of decline in organ function.
- Lymphatic obstructions and vascular disease can also cause renal cysts.
When one experiences any of these symptoms, the doctor will put them through an MRI or a CAT scan to determine whether the cyst(s) is benign or cancerous. Simple kidney cysts that do not display any symptoms (other than pain) do not require treatment. However, since complex kidney cysts produce a high risk of turning cancerous, these need to be treated immediately. The following methods are used for the treatment.
Sclerotherapy and Aspiration
Though this treatment is usually administered to treat patients with hemorrhoids or varicose veins formation, it has been seen that this is a successful means of treating renal cysts as well. In this method, a long sterile needle is used to puncture the cyst and drain out the liquid, so that the cyst shrinks. It is then filled with a solution that has alcohol (usually ethanol). This makes the tissue harder. It is performed under local anesthesia and works effectively with small cysts.
Laparoscopic Cyst Decortication
In this procedure, small incisions are made in the cyst and it is then filled with gas. This gets rid of the cyst and prevents it from forming again. This procedure is used only if the aspiration method fails to bring about positive results.
Heavy consumption of fluids helps when one develops renal cysts. Though not a renal cysts treatment by itself, it aids in the treatment that will be undertaken to a great extent. Make sure that you are aware of any untoward changes in your body and get it checked immediately by a doctor.