There are different types of surgery methods implemented as a treatment measure against various eye disorders. Eye surgery is an effective way to correct eye problems, where other treatment methods fail and is differentiated according to the complaint of the patient.
The eyes are very fragile organs in the entire human body system, and proper care and precautions must be taken in order to protect them. The eyes, also have their share of disorders, which may hamper vision. Sometimes these deformities can be corrected with the help of medication and eye drops. However, when these methods do not produce positive results and the person still suffers from symptoms like watering eyes, pain and blurred vision etc, the doctor may opt for surgery, as a permanent cure from eye problems. Eye surgery is also known as ocular surgery or orogolomistician surgery in medical terminology and is always performed by a certified ophthalmologist. Previously eye surgery was carried out using invasive procedure, but the modern times have seen a transformation of this traditional procedure.
Different Eye Surgery Procedures
Eye surgery can be invasive as well as non invasive. Non invasive surgery is carried out by employing laser beams to correct the problem. These days laser surgery has become quite popular and is preferred over the traditional procedure. There are many advantages of laser eye surgery over the traditional method. It is over in a few hours and the recovery process is also fast. After undergoing this surgery, the person can resume his normal routine within a few days. A number of types of laser eye surgery have come into existence and are used to treat different eye disorders.
Cataract surgery is a type of corrective eye surgery, which is used to clear the vision of an individual. In cataract, a thin film or membrane grows over the lens, thereby obstructing vision. The eye has a natural crystalline lens, transparent in nature, which enables sight. When an individual is said to be suffering from cataract, his lens develop opacification and the transparency is lost. Cataract is quite common in older people, above 60 years of age. Though the exact reason for this eye condition is not known, doctors believe that a change in the protein structures of the lens may be one of the reasons. Other factors responsible for this condition may be diabetes, smoking, excessive exposure to UV light and also due to certain steroids. This can lead to distortion of images in the initial stages and as the time goes by, the images become more blurred. In the absence of timely treatment, it can result in total blindness. The clouded lens is surgically removed and replaced with an artificial one to improve vision. There are two procedures involved to restore visibility – phacoemulsification and extracapsular cataract extraction. In the former surgical process, ultrasound is used to rupture the cataract fragments which are then sucked out of the eyes. The latter is an incisive procedure, which is used when the size of the cataract is large. The cataract surgery is mainly performed to remove the natural lens, which has turned cloudy and opaque, and replace it with an synthetic, artificial lens to treat myopia.
This eye surgery is used to correct hypermetropia (or farsightedness, also referred to as longsightedness) and presbyopia. These disorders make it difficult for the eye to focus properly, hence causing hindrance to clear visibility. Radio frequency energy is used in this non surgical procedure to alter the shape of the cornea, allowing light to focus on the retina and improvise the person’s sight. The surgery is usually performed alternately on each eye and the person who has undergone this surgery will become less dependent on glasses.
Implantable Contact Lenses Surgery
Also referred to as lens implants, this is a corrective surgery where the natural lens of the eyes are removed and replaced with artificial lens. There are two different procedures carried out for this lens implant surgery – clear lensectomy (CLE) and refractive lensectomy (RLE). Problems like cataract formation, severe hypermetropia and myopia (also referred to as nearsightedness) can be resolved successfully with this surgical procedure.
LASEK (Laser Assisted Sub-Epithelial Keratomileusis) Surgery
The LASEK surgery is a modern method which combines both PRK and LASIK methods to correct eye problems, Performed under local anesthesia, LASEK surgery is a corneal reshaping process in which the epithelium is detached from the underlying layer after treating the upper layer with alcohol, for approximately 25 to 30 seconds. The top corneal layer is lifted, with the cornea tissue being exposed, and laser is passed to reshape this eye part. The layer of cells is put back in position. This procedure is carried out on people who have very thin or steep corneas, as they do not qualify for LASIK surgery.
LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis) Surgery
LASIK eye surgery is a vision correction procedure and is employed to treat eye problems like astigmatism, hyperopia and myopia. Refractive errors, dependency on glasses and contact lenses, blurred vision are successfully corrected with the help of this laser surgery. In this surgical procedure, the cornea is reshaped with the use of laser, to enhance the focusing of light rays to the retina for a clear visibility. A thin flap of the cornea is cut with the help of a microkeratome and pulled back. With an excimer laser, the underlying tissue of the cornea is adjusted, so that light is focused properly to the retina through the lens. After the surgery, the flap of the cornea is placed back on its place. Hence with the help of this surgical process, the focusing ability and vision acuity of an individual is improved.
Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)
The PRK surgery was the first eye surgery that used laser method to reshape corneal tissues. This vision correction process used excimer laser, in order to remove the tissue and reshape it. This surgery is implemented to correct mild to moderate forms of astigmatism, farsightedness and nearsightedness etc. A cool beam of ultraviolet light is passed on the corneal surface to readjust the shape of the cornea. Done under local anesthesia, this procedure takes approximately 10 minutes. individuals who have thin corneas can benefit from this laser procedure and the success ratio of this surgery is approximately 95 percent.
Radial keratotomy is an invasive surgical procedure which reshapes the cornea. This is a traditional method which uses a precision calibrated diamond knife to make tiny, microscopic incisions, on the cornea. The misshape of the cornea (as seen in astigmatism) is flattened to restore the sight of an individual. It is also used to correct mild to moderate myopia. Since the recovery period is quite long, this procedure has fallen out of practice, due to new breakthroughs in the form of laser surgery.
This is a complicated eye surgery which is performed to restore vision and replace the affected vitreous. Also known as vitreous humor, this clear gel helps the eye maintain its shape and transmit light to the retina. Due to trauma, eye infections and disorders etc., this vitreous may get damaged and the need to replace it arises. Vision may be impaired due to vitreous floaters or deposits, retinal detachment, macular holes and also due to eye bleeding. In order to correct this disorder, the eye surgeon may opt for vitrectomy, to remove the damaged vitreous gel, along with the debris lodged in the eyes. The affected vitreous gel is suctioned with the help of small instruments. A synthetic vitreous membrane, which is created with silicone gas or oil, is replaced in the eye and the normal pressure is restored. The retina is then treated and any resulting scar tissue is removed with the help of photocoagulation or laser. The holes and tears in the retina are repaired, and the detached corners of this eye part are reattached. After this invasive surgery, normal vision is restored.
These were some of the types of eye surgery, that are being employed today and used to address different eye problems. For appropriate eye treatment, it is essential to get in touch with an ophthalmologist, who may guide you according to your complaint.