Gastric bypass surgery is a weight loss surgery that helps morbidly obese people to reduce their weight in less period of time. Read on to know what are the types of this surgery…
Morbidly obese people usually suffer from serious health problems like, heart diseases and diabetes. Reduction in weight is the only option that can help reduce the consequences of these diseases. Gastric bypass surgery changes the anatomy of the digestive system so that less calories are absorbed and which leads to weight reduction.
The stomach and the small intestine are the two organs that play a vital role in the gastric system. Normally, the food that enters the stomach, is mixed with the gastric juices. It then, enters the small intestine where the nutrients/calories are absorbed. Duodenum (first part) and jejunum (second part) are the two parts of the small intestine.
In gastric bypass surgery, the size of the stomach is reduced and is directly connected to the jejunum. As a result of the reduced size of the stomach, the food that the stomach holds is quite less, and due to the bypassed duodenum less calories will be absorbed in the small intestine. There are two types of procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and Biliopancreatic diversion bypass surgery. Here we shall have a look at each type.
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery
It is called Roux-en-Y because the Y-shaped small intestine is connected to the newly formed small stomach. In this surgery, the upper part of the stomach is isolated from the lower part, and a small pouch like structure is formed. Then the small intestine is cut near the jejunum and the jejunum is directly connected to the pouch. The lower part of the stomach is completely bypassed and the food enters directly into the jejunum. There are two techniques of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, open and laparoscopic.
In open gastric bypass surgery the patient is given general anesthesia and a large incision is made in the abdominal part through the belly. The surgeon performs the bypass by directly operating on the stomach, small intestine and other organs. However, laparoscopic surgery follows a different method of bypass. Five to six small incisions are made in the belly area.
A laparoscope is inserted through one of these incisions. A laparoscope is a flexible tube that has a camera at its inserted end. This laparoscope is connected to a video screen and it enables the surgeon to get the view inside the stomach. The stomach is inflated by air to get a better view. Thin surgical instruments are then inserted through the remaining incisions and the bypass is performed. Laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery is always preferred over the open procedure as it helps the patient to recover soon and also because it involves less complications.
Biliopancreatic Diversion Bypass Surgery
This is also called extensive gastric bypass surgery. It is the most complicated type of gastric bypass and is rarely performed. In biliopancreatic diversion surgical procedure, the lower part of the stomach is completely removed from the body. The pouch that is formed is joined to the rarest end of the small intestine, thus bypassing both duodenum and jejunum. Although this surgery guarantees weight loss, many nutritional deficiencies may occur after the surgery.
The symptoms of many health problems, caused due to obesity are reduced after gastric bypass surgery. It changes the lifestyle of the patient and a new diet that facilitates the smooth functioning of the altered gastric system needs to be followed.