There are many types of weight loss surgeries; therefore, one should discuss it with his/her doctor before opting them. This article provides information on various types of surgical procedures for weight loss and the precautions to be taken after the surgery.
Obesity is a leading health problem and a major cause of death in the United States. Obesity is a constant concern today, as nearly two-third of the American population is classified as overweight or obese. Moreover, obesity can affect the life of a person, both psychologically and socially. Depression can worsen the health of an obese person.
Weight loss can be achieved with the help of non-surgical methods like dieting, exercising, or medical treatments. But, the results obtained in this process is very minor weight loss, and many people are unsuccessful at maintaining it for long term. It is observed that surgery has a much higher success rate in terms of the amount of fat lost and its long-term durability. Doctors only recommend surgeries to people who are morbidly obese, as it can play a vital role in preventing many of the medical problems associated with obesity. Weight loss surgeries have gained popularity in recent years and many people are opting for these procedures.
Weight loss surgery options come under the category of bariatric surgery, which is further classified as restrictive procedures and restrictive/malabsorptive procedures.
Restrictive procedures reduce the size of the stomach, making you feel satiated even after eating less food. It makes you stay full for a longer period of time. The options available in this category are:
- Roux-en-Y (RNY) Gastric Bypass (short limb or proximal)
- Lap Band Surgery or Adjustable Gastric Banding (AGB)
- Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy
Restrictive/malabsorptive procedures result in permanent changes to your anatomy, as the size of the stomach is reduced, and the small intestine is also shortened. The smaller stomach makes you feel satisfied even after eating less food. The changed size of the intestine helps reduce the amount of calories absorbed by the body. The following surgery options are available in this category:
- Bilopancreatic Diversion
- Duodenal Switch
Combination of Restrictive and Malabsorptive Procedures
These also help reduce the food intake as the procedures result in reduced absorption of food. The surgery option in this category is:
- Long limb or distal gastric bypass
Gastric bypass surgery is the most frequently performed weight loss surgery in the U.S. According to the statistics, in U.S., more than 90% of the weight loss surgeries are gastric bypasses. In this surgery, the surgeon connects the stomach directly to the lower segment of the small intestine, bypassing the duodenum and some part of the jejunum. The part of the intestine between the stomach pouch and the connection to the proximal small intestine is called ‘roux limb’. The length of the roux limb differs in short limb (proximal) and long limb (distal) gastric bypass. Long limb gastric bypass can lead to less absorption, than short limb gastric bypass. The surgery can be done laparoscopically or open. People who have a BMI of 35-40, and who are affected by life-threatening problems like diabetes, severe sleep apnea, or heart diseases, can opt for these surgeries.
Another option is abdominoplasty or tummy tucks, where the excess fat and skin from the lower abdominal area are excised surgically, to make it firmer. The procedure known as liposuction reduces fat at any part of the body. You can reduce fat from under the chin, arms, face, stomach, thighs, buttocks, etc., with the help of liposuction procedures. The following cosmetic surgeries are very popular among many people:
- Body Contouring
- Buttock Liposuction
- Breast Reduction Surgery
There are risks associated with these surgeries, which include infection, blood clots, bleeding, strictures, leaks, bowel obstruction, etc. After a gastric bypass surgery, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, dumping syndrome, etc., are commonly observed in the patients. But, in more than 90% of the patients, most of the medical problems such as diabetes, sleep apnea, joint pain, hypertension, and heartburn are improved or resolved after these surgeries.
Disclaimer: This article is for informative purposes only and does not in any way attempt to replace the advice offered by an expert on the subject.