The granulomatous inflammation is a reaction by the body as a part of the immune system response. In the following article, a brief description of the same has been made. To know more, read on.
It is completely natural and common reaction of the human body to develop any kind of defensive and immune response when any part of the body becomes susceptible to danger. Granulomatous inflammation, which is also known as Granuloma or a granulomatous reaction is a reaction of the immune system which can take place anywhere on the body or inside the body. A granulomatous reaction is formed of immune cells of the body which are spherical and act as shield to foreign substances and organisms. This kind of formation of cells is usually occurs as a tier two or secondary action of the human immune system. Commonly our immune system with the help of while blood cells and other developed antibodies, eliminates the foreign and infections organism. However there are situations where the body unable to eliminate the threat, immediately. As a protective measure, spherical immune cells, form a sort of shield or cover against the foreign particles or substances.
Microbes, foreign substances which are unwelcome, keratin or suture, organic particulates and other such substances can cause the inflammation, for an indefinite time period as well as with varying severity. Depending upon the location, the inflammation can prove to be painful, in some cases, people don’t feel the pain or even the presence of the inflammation. There are several diseases, conditions and ailments which can cause the said inflammation. The following are some common ones.
Causes and Treatment
The following are some common causes of granuloma and their cures. This sort of inflammation is usually seen in infected organs where the foreign substance causes reactions to the human cells, tissues or organs.
Also abbreviated as TB, Tuberculosis infection is caused as a result of Mycobacteria (Mycobacterium) family of bacterial microbes, of which the Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the principle infective agent. Common symptoms include, fever, presence of blood in phlegm and saliva discharge from mouth and nose, night sweat and a painfully chronic cough. These are observed as tuberculosis chiefly infects the lungs, surrounding tissues and in general the respiratory system. The inflammation in such a case consists of defensive cells which include, Macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, Cytotoxic T cell and fibroblasts. The granulomatous reaction is observed in locations where presence of bacteria is observed. The function of this inflammation is two-way. One, it shields the uninfected body tissues from coming under attack, and two, Cytotoxic T cells eliminate all the infected cells with the help of secretions known as perforin and granulysin. In addition to that interferon gamma, a form of cytokines which activates macrophages in order to eliminate the infection. The WHO has developed and prescribed the DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course) as treatment for tuberculosis. Apart from that, a series of antibiotics is also used to treat granuloma in lungs. The inflammation recedes as the infection gets eliminated.
The mortifying disease leprosy has been classified as a ‘granulomatous disease’ as the inflammation immediately affects the peripheral nerves, upper respiratory tract thereby causing skin lesions. The infection of leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis bacteria. Infection of these bacteria chiefly affects the skin and the nerve cells and nerves. The primary symptoms are skin lesions and the reaction, which occurs as a result of the bacteria infection. This disease is highly progressive and if you notice any symptoms for a prolonged time period or which occur chronically, rush to the doctor as the bacteria tends to progressively affect other tissues, organs and body parts. There are variety of different treatments to kill the infection and rejuvenate the affected parts.
Sarcoidosis is a condition where granulomatous inflammation occurs chronically due to unknown reasons, in places such as lungs and lymph nodes and for that matter any other organ. The inflammation occurs in the form of nodules. This kind of ailment can also be asymptomatic or symptomless. Common symptoms include, Cardiac sarcoidosis that is the inflammation in the cardiac organs, inflammation in the eye or parts of the eye and inflation on scalp which leads to hair loss. The problem with this ailment is that it is difficult to spot. There are variety of reasons which can be attributed as the causes, genetic, infections, Hyperprolactinemia, thyroid disease are the commonly attributed causes.
4. Crohn’s disease
Granulomatous reaction is a common symptom of Crohn’s disease, which is a close relative of the inflammatory bowel disease and causes the inflammation of parts of the digestive tract, right from that mouth to the gut, inflammation of stomach lining is also observed in such a case. The causes of Crohn’s disease are varied and also collective, and include genetic, environmental, immune and even infections. In several cases two causes often attributed to the condition. Common symptoms of Crohn’s disease include, problems in digestion, abdominal pain, fever and weight loss. Apart from that, frequent defecation and flatulence and bloating are also some early signs. The inflammation affects the walls of the digestive tract, is a symptom of the disease which is spotted during diagnosis. Lifestyle change and medication are the common solutions to cure the disease.
There are several other causes of the granuloma which include the following:
|Infectious Causes||Systemic Diseases||Inorganic Substances|
A rule of thumb that one should follow is that in case of any chronic or persistently occurring symptoms, its essential to visit the doctor and stop the problem causing granuloma from becoming big and grave.