COPD, also known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, is a lung disorder. The exacerbation of this issue can lead to serious risks. What causes COPD exacerbation? Know all about the causes in detail in the article below.
Respiratory diseases have been growing in the recent years and there is more risk of other health complications related to the disease to sprout, if not tackled in time. COPD exacerbation or inflammation is one condition that can be described as the worsening of conditions of respiratory diseases. And to know better we will first get a glimpse of this disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can be described as a combination of few respiratory diseases like bronchitis, asthma and emphysema. It can also be termed as the subset of these diseases. The lungs get degenerated and the surrounding tissues too get damaged due to this disease. This obstructs the airflow in the lungs, resulting in respiratory issues. Once these conditions worsen and create severe risks, it is termed as COPD exacerbation. According to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease, also abbreviated as ‘GOLD’, COPD inflammation is defined as, ‘an event in the natural course of the disease, that is characterized by the change in the patients base line cough, dyspnea and sputum, that is beyond the normal day-to-day variations. That is acute in onset and may demand a change in the medication of the patient suffering from this pulmonary disease.
The common causes of exacerbation are listed below, the causes can define the signs and symptoms of the exacerbation. Let us take a look.
▶ The most common causes are infections of the respiratory tracts and similar. Most cases are caused due to the infections. The non clearance of the throat of mucus and other substances, aid in the thriving of bacteria in the respiratory organs. This kind of environment is very favorable for bacteria to survive. More than 50% of the viral and bacterial cases have a typical bacteria prevalent. They are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and also Moraxella catarrhalis. Some other cases, nearly 10% of the cases have a role of atypical organisms like Chlamydia pneumoniae.
▶ Viral causes are influenza, rhinoviruses, parainfluenza respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and coronavirus. In extreme cases of exacerbations, one of the causes were Pseudomonas species of virus.
▶ Improper treatment can also be a cause of exacerbation, when a patient does not take proper and timely medicine. This can also known worsen the case if the person was diagnosed with COPD exacerbation earlier, as it affects the current and any future exacerbation.
▶ People who have been on medications like corticosteroid inhalers and antibiotics for a long time, can develop exacerbation of COPD. Certain inherited disorders like alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can also cause COPD. Cystic fibrosis, Bronchiectasis are also some contributors of the causes. Dysphagia, which is to have difficulty when swallowing is also known to add more complications. Heart failure, pulmonary embolisms, gastroesophageal reflux disease, insomnia, depression are some of the disorders that can trigger exacerbation
▶ Some external factors like pollution are one of the major reasons for exacerbation. Pollutants like nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulates can also aggregate the exacerbations. Dust and other pollutants too can be harmful, along with irritants that are present in cleaning products and fumes of paint, etc.
▶ Smoking is one large contributor on exacerbation of COPD. Smoking in itself harms the lungs and affects the respiratory system in many ways. Passive smoking can also be equally dangerous.
▶ There are some cases of exacerbation that apparently have no underlying causes. About more than one third of the cases have no cause. Health experts narrow down the causes of such cases to, very less mobility and physical activity that can trigger exacerbation.
It is said prevention is better than cure, and this can be aptly followed in cases of COPD. You are now aware of the various causes of COPD exacerbation, you can take precautions wisely. Quit smoking and avoid pollution. Use humidifiers at home and maintain hygiene. Follow a healthy diet and exercise regularly. Follow a routine check up for COPD and take proper medicines for the same. COPD exacerbation can cause serious risks to the body if not treated on time. So take apt care and treatment that will encourage recovery and maintain a good health.